What is the definition of a Bunion (Hallux Valgus)?

A bunion is a foot condition in which the first metatarsal bone curls inwards toward the other digits, or toes, while the big toe curves away from the midline of the body and curves inwards toward the other digits. As a result, the joint protrudes on the medial side of the foot, causing a hump.

Symptoms of a Bunion

The base of the big toe has a projecting hump.

The skin on the bunion has thickened.

Calluses or corns. When the big toe bends inwards, it may rub against and overlap the second toe, causing friction.

Around the big toe joint, there is swelling and redness.

The bunion causes pain and discomfort.

Overpronation and other biomechanical flaws in the feet

The big toe is dysfunctional, resulting in restricted movement.

Bunions: What Causes Them?

Bunions can be caused by a variety of factors, some of which can be avoided and others which cannot.


Foot bone structure and shape are inherited.

Shoes. Bunions can develop when shoes with a narrow design shape apply too much pressure on the big toe joint. Heels and dress shoes, in particular, with a tiny or pointed toe box, are thought to be the cause of the ailment. It’s also crucial that your shoes fit properly, with the right breadth and size for your foot.

Flat-footed people who pronate walk on the inside of their feet, putting more pressure on the big toe.

Arthritis can cause cartilage degeneration in the joint, resulting in bunions.

Bunions should be avoided if at all possible.

As previously stated, a bunion is a bone malformation that will not heal on its own. Depending on how much the bone protrudes, treatment usually entails reducing pressure and pain while also preventing the deformity from worsening.


The following are some of the most common bunion treatments:


Shoes with a Bunion

Wearing footwear with a large last, increased depth, and a wide and round toe box. This creates a pressure-free environment with plenty of room for toe movement.

The interior has a soft padded interior that makes gentle touch with the skin and bunion, reducing friction and inflammation. Extended width shoes are available from several orthopedic brands, which is always a plus.

To help align the feet, avoid overpronation, and straighten the toes, the ideal footwear for bunions should be made with sufficient arch support.

Shoes with stretch and flexible uppers are advised because they can fit to the specific shape of the foot, thereby avoiding pressure on the bunion.


In shoes without built-in orthotics, orthotic insoles, whether over-the-counter or custom, should be worn. While stabilizing the big toe joint, the insoles will support the arch and help enhance foot function.

With a split toe pattern between the first and second toes, bunion socks are a fantastic idea. The big toe is softly straightened and separated from the other toes thanks to the unique structure.

For young people with bunions, night splints can help correct the big toe. Because the bones have not fully developed and are still malleable, this method can be effective.

Oral steroids like prednisone, as well as non-steroidal pain medications like ibuprofen, may help ease discomfort and swelling.

Injections of cortisone can be used to relieve edema and inflammation.

Wrapping protective padding, medical, or kinesiology tape around the bunion will protect it from friction and potential harm while also offering calming comfort.

Individuals with severe bunions may need to have surgery to get them removed. The recovery from a bunionectomy is frequently painful and time-consuming.

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